Mosquito repellents and other insects

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Mosquito repellents and other insects

The proliferation and increase in the population of insects and mosquitoes increases with the heat, increasing also the risk to suffer pitfalls ranging from mild to severe, depending on the insect and its ability to transmit diseases. As for the mosquitoes, in fact, the ones that bite are the females that look for a source of food (blood) to lay the eggs since the males last less time once they have copulated.

To carry out this task, they use its sting and nail it in our skin, injecting in turn a poison that prevents the blood from clotting and thus allowing it to obtain more blood. A single bite is enough for the females to fill with blood and can lay their eggs, but if they are interrupted, they are forced to bite again. The choice of the victim depends on several factors:

Skin temperature (higher increases the possibility, so children are more prone to bites)
Respiratory frequency (if higher, it attracts the female mosquito)
Substances that the person gives off (body odor, colognes, lacquers, creams, etc …)
Color of the clothes he wears (it is thought that the blue colors are attractive and the browns along with the whites are rather repellent)

For us, that poison contains a series of proteins that cause us allergic reactions and, in the worst case, in the exchange of flows, we can introduce a parasite, bacteria or a virus that causes us a specific pathology. To avoid the bite and the problems it entails for the skin and human health, there is an extensive and varied line of products and devices in the market with the aim of eliminating them (electric diffusers), driving them away, avoiding them and, of course, repelling them. In Spain, it is the species Culex pipiens or trumpeter mosquito that stings the most, together with the new spreading species Aedes albopictus or tiger mosquito.

Use of repellents and active principles
The mosquitoes make use of several senses to locate their victim, and once detected they are placed on their skin to proceed to the incision and extract the blood. The repellents do not kill mosquitoes or insects, but they drive them away.

Culex mosquito

Currently, traditional remedies coexist, such as eucalyptus (from which a good repellent is obtained, such as citriodiol or PMD), olive oil, peppermint or citronella, together with the two large active families with repellent function:

Pyrethrins: They annul the orientation capacity of the insects and in response, the mosquito or insect will move away to an area where its nervous and sensory system will work again in conditions. The great advantage of pyrethrins is that they can be used at small doses, reducing the risk of toxicity and that is why they can be recommended to children older than 2 years. In addition, they do not damage or spoil the tissues, so they can be applied to clothing. The disadvantage is that in some areas where there is a lot of mosquito, there is also a lot of repellent and insects tend to develop resistance to the components much faster than normal. One of the most commonly used pyrethrins is permethrin, which is equally effective in the treatment of lice, ticks and fleas.
Toluamides: The best known active principle is DEET or diethyl toluamide, which has a very unpleasant effect on insects for a long time. What makes them disoriented and that they try to flee away from the victim since their main priority is no longer to draw blood but to return to normality. The DEET is very effective for insects and spiders but it has a great disadvantage: high doses are needed to guarantee protection in risk areas. The concentrations can exceed 40%. In addition, there are clinical cases in which dermatitis, allergic reactions, cardiotoxicity and even neurotoxicity have occurred due to the continued use of the product. This does not mean that when you apply it for a day or two on a trip you will suffer some of these symptoms. Because of this, its use is not recommended for children under 12 years of age, nor can it be applied to clothing because it produces stains on the tissues. If in the area, in addition to mosquitoes there are ticks, then the recommendation is to use permethrin instead of DEET since it is more effective. In any case, DEET is still the most commercially approved repellent effective in humans.
Pepper derivatives: Here we find the Icaridin, which is a synthetic repellent with a repellent function of flies, mosquitoes and ticks as it interferes with its receptors. It is a non-greasy substance and does not give off odor, so the final product is pleasant. The best thing is that it does not damage fabrics or plastics so it can be applied to clothes. Concentrations of 20% can offer an efficiency greater than 90% for 6-8 hours and their toxicity profile is low. It is not recommended in children under 2 years and up to 12 years not to exceed 2 or 3 applications per day.
IR3535: It is a molecule with structure similar to alanine that protects against mosquitoes both Culex and Aedes, horseflies and ticks (approximately 4 hours or less). Its toxicity is minimal but it can cause irritations in the eyes of severe character.
We put aside the studies carried out with patients in which vitamin B1 or vitamin B6 were administered orally to verify that the mosquitoes were able to detect these concentrations in the blood and flee from the victim. To date, there is no enlightening study and given the low efficacy of the usual repellents with respect to other pharmaceutical products, these possibilities are ruled out. It must be said that studies have been done in which the essential oils of Copaiba and Andiroba, two Amazonian plants that grow in Brazil, can be effective as insect repellents but even more so to combat sting.

How to apply a repellent?
Extend or apply the repellent on all areas of the body that are exposed to the open air, with the exception of the face if desired.
If in the place there is a lot of environmental humidity or it is hot, then repeat the application of the repellent regularly
After the bath or shower you have to put on the repellent
Sunscreens or sunscreens should be applied before repellents since it is very common to use both in summer
Extreme preventive measures at dusk and at night. In the case of the tiger mosquito, it is necessary to watch early in the day
5 Recommendations to avoid mosquito bites
At dusk or dusk, which is when the females are more active, it is advisable to wear long-sleeved clothing, especially for children pants and socks.
Avoid the use of perfumes or colognes that are very strong.
Light colored clothing attracts mosquitoes less. Avoid bright colors, dark or patterned designs that are very colorful.
Avoid walking barefoot on terraces or by the grass or lawn.
If possible, protect the windows with mosquito nets.
Trademarks that contain mosquito and insect repellents
To prepare a first aid kit, both at home and above all the travel kit, you have to know and know the type of asset that the product contains and its concentration (usually sold in pharmacies and parapharmacies):

They incorporate DEET: Relec Extra Strong 50ml (40%), Elinwas 100ml (15%), Goibi Antimosquitos 100ml (18%), Goibi Xtrem Tropical 75ml (45%), 3M Ultrathon 125ml (25%).
Incorporate Citronella: Kife Lotion, Blitz.
Incorporate Citriodiol: Mosi-Guard Natural 150ml (40%), Mosi-Guard Natural Barra (53.3%), Mosi-Guard Natural Cream 100g (30%).
Incorporate Icaridin: Autan Active Spray 100ml (19%), Autan Active Bar 50ml (20%), Autan Family Care Cream 100ml (10%), Autan Protection Plus 100 and 150ml (20%).
Incorporate Permethrin: Halley repellent, Halley Lotion, Halley Lotion for Children, Milice foam 150ml.
Insect repellent bracelets and bangles
In Spain, repellent wristbands are subject to a sanitary authorization so not all comply with the regulations as a medical device. Most are of natural origin such as citronella, geraniol, eucalyptus or lavender, but there are others that may include pesticides or pesticides. To be sure that the bracelet or bracelet meets the authorization requirements just check the label and observe that the following is true:

The composition is described or the asset is cited.
The function of the product is described
The use mode and warnings for the user appear
It appears (more important) a registration number with the following nomenclature: xxx – PLAG (the xxx are any numbering)
To date, the repellent wristbands approved by the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Health Products (AEMPS) are:

Repellent bracelet BLITZ (430-PLAG)
Repellent bracelet RELEC (491-PLAG)
MOSQUITOX CLIK CLAK repellent bracelet (570-PLAG)
Repellent bracelet PARA’KITO (479-PLAG)
Repellent bracelet PARASITAL (485-PLAG)

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